Semyon Vick. Bean cultures
Vika is summer: botanical characteristic
Sort (Vicia L.) belongs to family of bean. Integrates 85 types. Two are most widespread: Common vetch, or summer (To saliva L.), and winter or shaggy (To villosa Roth).
Root system rod, branched, with outgrowths of nodule bacteria. The stalk is thin, creeping, almost tetrahedral, up to 100 cm long. Fruit - polyspermous bean, linear and elongated and rhombic. Semyon Wicky - roundish, slightly squeezed, different color. Weight - 1000 seeds of Wicky - 45-60g. When determining kinds of Wicky of sowing campaign take such signs as basis: color of flower and seeds, photo of seeds.
Vika summer is undemanding to heat. Seeds begin to burgeon at temperature of 2-3 °C, and shoots maintain frosts to 4-6 °C. Hygrophilous culture. Most of all water absorbs during intensive increase of vegetative weight and in phase of blossoming education of fruits. Well grows on neutral and sub-acid soils.
Wicky's grades summer: Bila Tserkva 34, Bila Tserkva 679, Bila Tserkva 7, Bila Tserkva 70, Bila Tserkva 88, Bila Tserkva 9, Hybrid 97, Margarita, Oryol 84, Pribuzhskaya 19, etc.
Vika is winter: botanical characteristic
In culture there are two look: Vika shaggy (V. villosa Roth) and pannonsky (V. rappopisa of Crantz).
Root system of Wicky shaggy rod, with numerous lateral branchings. The stalk is branched, thin, almost chetyrekhgranny, up to 160 cm long. Flowers light, red-violet, are more rare white. Fruit - bean. The beans flattened. Seeds are small, black or dark brown. The mass of 1000 seeds - 25-30 g.
Vick Pannonskaya differs from Wicky shaggy a little. Stalk at it soft, fluffy, 70-120 cm long. Leaves are large, linear or obovate. The nimbus is light yellow, seldom light pink. The beans extended, flattened, fluffy, 2,5-3 cm long. Seeds are larger. The mass of 1000 seeds - 38-45 g. Earlier and drought-resistant.
Wicky's grades winter: Voroshilovgrad, Dnieper, Kolomyysky 2, Pannonsky, Poltava 25, Poltava 77, Steppe, Chernihiv 20, Black Sea, Anniversary, etc.
Technology of cultivation of Wicky
At Vicki's cultivation summer on seeds she is placed to the field intended for summer cultures. Sow it after propashny or grain crops. Vika summer is not exacting to predecessors.
The main soil cultivation consists in hulling of eddish and fall plowing after grain and plowed land after propashny. Spring cultivation is begun at physical tilth. By means of KPS-4 cultivator the field is prepared for one or two passes for crops.
Vika as well as all other leguminous cultures, well uses after-effect of the fertilizers introduced under the predecessor. Need of introduction of fertilizers directly under Vika arises at low supply of the soil of available forms of mineral nutrition. Therefore on rich soils, after the fertilized predecessors it is possible to be limited to presowing cultivation of seeds molybdenum and entering into rows at crops of the granulated superphosphate in dose 10kg/hectare of river. At placement on poor soils introduce phosphoric and potassium fertilizers. Introduction under the main processing of P45K45 is provided by increase of grain yield on 3,0-5,0 c/hectare.
Summer Vicki's crops
Way of sowing of Wicky - usual lower case and narrow-rowed, providing uniform placement of seeds on the square. At the same time weeds well are suppressed with Wicky's plants. Semyon Wicky at germination demands good intake of moisture, wrap it on depth not less the 4-5th. On light-textured soils depth is increased to the 5-6th. Shoots appear in 7-10 days. Sow it on seeds along with early grain crops.
Seeding rate of seeds of Wicky in pure crops of 1,2-1,8 million/hectare viable seeds, or 100-150 kg/hectare. To Vick on seeds often sow in mix with oats in the ratio of Wicky and oats as 3-4:1. The seeding rate of Wicky makes 100-110 kg/hectare, oats - 40-60 kg/hectare, all - 140-170 kg/hectare. Vick on seeds can sow also in mix with fodder beans, mustard white.
Owing to strong drowning, irregularity of maturing, easy fall of seeds, Wicky's gathering of on grain rather difficult. Bring together Vika in the two-phase way. Mow seed plants in rolls harvester of ZhRB-4, 2 when browning beans in the lower and middle part of plants (50-75% of beans). Seeds has wax phase of maturity now and well ripens in rolls.
Select and thresh rolls when humidity of grain decreases to 16-18%. At humidity less than 15% seeds are strongly split up, and at humidity more than 20% are injured. Optimum harvesting times on green material - in budding stage - blossomings. On hay and haylage - at full blossoming of Wicky, on silo - in phase of gray beans.
Technology of cultivation of Wicky winter
Vika winter is grown up in mix with winter - wheat, triticale, rye, barley, and also with colza. Wicky's productivity in one-specific crops reaches 150-250 c/hectare, in mix - to 250-400 c/hectare. Contains more protein in comparison with Vika summer.
Vika winter is undemanding to heat. Semyon Wicky is sprouted at temperature of 2-3 °C. Winter hardiness is lower in comparison with winter grain crops. It is exacting to moisture.
The best predecessors of Wicky - winter and summer grain, corn. Vika is not exacting to the predecessor. It is better to introduce fertilizers under the predecessor. After not fertilized predecessors under plowing bring P30-45K30-45.
Soil preparation for Vicki's cultivation is similar to soil cultivation under winter culture. Vika well grows both after plowing, and at surface treatment of the soil. It is important to level well field surface as collecting on grain is carried out on low cut.
Way of sowing - usual SZ-3, 6, lower case by means of seeder. On heavy soils seeds sow on depth of 3-4 cm. Optimum depth of crops - 5-6 cm. At lack of moisture of sowing layer and on sandy soils planting depth is increased to 6-8 cm. In the conditions of sufficient moistening the seeding rate of mix of rye and Wicky makes 140 kg/hectare (on 70 kg of Wicky and rye). At cultivation with colza of seeding rate make respectively 30-40 kg/hectare and 8-10 kg/hectare. Wicky's sowing winter is purely inefficient in connection with drowning of herbage and decrease in grain productivity.
It is better to sow to Vick winter for 10-14 days before optimum terms of sowing of winter rye. If it is a little moisture in the soil, Vick can sow later. Early sowing creates good conditions for Wicky's development and her rewintering. At delay in Vicki's crops (after September 10), she does not manage to develop well and during the winter almost completely perishes.
At cultivation on seeds Vika winter is brought together when maturing component - wheat, rye, etc. By this time 70-80% of beans of Wicky ripen. At swath harvesting they finally ripen in rolls and become suitable for thrashing. At delay in collecting Wicky's beans crack and the most part of harvest is lost.